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Glaucoma Medications

The more you know about your treatment, the better you can work in partnership with Dr. Olivier. Here’s a chart about the medications prescribed to control glaucoma.

Category Generic Name Brand Name Strength Dosage Mechanism Side Effects
Beta-Blockers   Timoptic, Timoptic XE**, Ocudose*, Timoptic-Gel*** 0.25%, 0.5% 2x Day Reduces aqueous secretion Asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Heart Block
Non-Selective Timolol Hemihydrase Betimolol   2x Day    
  Levobunolol HCL Betagan 0.25%, 0.5% 2x Day    
  Metipropranolol Optipranolol 0.3% 2x Day    
  Carteolol HCL Ocupress 0.25%, 0.3%, 0.5%, 1% 2x Day    
Cap Color: Yellow            
Selective Betaxolol HCL Betoptic 0.25%, 1% 2x Day    
Cap Color: Blue            
Alpha2 Adrenergic Agonist Apraclonidine Iopidine 0.5%, 1% 2 - 3x Day Reduces aqueous secretion Irritation, topical sensitivity, vasovagal attack
Bromonidine tartrate Alphagan 0.2% 2 - 3x Day    
Cap Color: Purple for Alphagan, and White for Apraclonidine            
Non-Selective Epinephrine Epifrin 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, 2% 2x Day Improves the aqueous outflow (More fluid leaves the eye because the outflow facility works better.) Hypertension (high blood pressure), aphakia (patients who have had cataract surgery and a lens was not placed in the eye at the time of surgery), soft contact lens, narrow angles are concerns.
Adrenergic Agonists Epinephrine HCL Glaucon 1%, 2% 2x Day   Hypertension (high blood pressure), aphakia (patients who have had cataract surgery and a lens was not placed in the eye at the time of surgery), soft contact lens, narrow angles are concerns.
  Epinephrine Borate Epinal, Eppy/N 0.5%, 1%, 2% 2x Day   Irritation, adrenochrome deposits (little black spots seen on the conjunctiva of the affected eye), allergy, rebound hyperemia, blurred vision, mydriasis (pupils are larger), cystoid macular edema in aphakia (swelling in the back of the eye), hypertension, extra systoles, headache
Epinephrine Bitrartrate Epitrate 2% 2x Day   Irritation, adrenochrome deposits (little black spots seen on the conjunctiva of the affected eye), allergy, rebound hyperemia, blurred vision, mydriasis (pupils are larger), cystoid macular edema in aphakia (swelling in the back of the eye), hypertension, extra systoles, headache
  Dipivefrin Propine 0.1% 2x Day   Irritation, adrenochrome deposits (little black spots seen on the conjunctiva of the affected eye), allergy, rebound hyperemia, blurred vision, mydriasis (pupils are larger), cystoid macular edema in aphakia (swelling in the back of the eye), hypertension, extra systoles, headache
Cap Color:Dipivefrin white top            
Prostaglandins Inhibitors Latanopros Xalatan 0.005% Every day Improves uveoscleral outflow Iris pigmentation, hypertrichosis, cystoid macular edema, may aggravate herpes virus.
Cap Color: White            
Parasympathomimetic Agents Pilocarpine HCL Isoptocarpine 0.25% - 10% 4x Day Improves aqueous outflow Miosis (small pupils), decreased night vision, variable induced myopia (nearsighttedness).
Cholinergic   Pilocar 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 6% 4x Day    
    Pilopine HS gel 4% Every day    
    Ocusert Pilo 20 & 40 Every week    
  Pilocarpine nitrate Pilagan 1%, 2%, 4%      
  1%, 2%, 4% Isopto Carbachol 0.75%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3%     Brow ache, exacerbation of visual defect from cartaract, cataractogenic.
Cap Color: Green           Induced angle closure, retinal tear or detachment.
Anticholinesterase Echothiophate Phospholine 0.03%, 0.06%, 0.125%, 0.25% 1 - 2x Day Improves aqueous outflow General anesthesia, eye surgery, retinal detachment and cataract surgery are concerns.
  Demecarium Bromide Humerosol 0.125%, 0.25% 1 - 2x Day   Intense miosis, iris pigment epithelial cysts, induced myopia, cataract, retinal detachment, paradoxical angle closure, punctal stenosis, intense bleeding and inflammation with eye surgery, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, enuresis, prolonged recover from succinylcholine.
  Physostigmine Eserine ointment 0.25% 1 - 2x Day   Intense miosis, iris pigment epithelial cysts, induced myopia, cataract, retinal detachment, paradoxical angle closure, punctal stenosis, intense bleeding and inflammation with eye surgery, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, enuresis, prolonged recover from succinylcholine.
    Isopto Eserine 0.25%, 0.5% 1 - 2x Day    
Combination Medications Timolol Maleate & Dorzolamide HCL Cosopt   2x Day Similar to Betablockers & topical carbonic anhydrase Similar to Betablockers and topical carbonic anhydrase
  Latanoprost & Timolol maleate Unknown, this is an investigational drug   1x Day?    
  Epinephrine Bitartrate & Pilocarpine HCL     4x Day Similar to Pilocarpine & Epinephrine Similar to Pilocarpine and Epinephrine
  E-Pilo 1   1% 4x Day Similar to Pilocarpine and Epinephrine Similar to Pilocarpine and Epinephrine
  E-Pilo 2   2% 4x Day Similar to Pilocarpine and Epinephrine Similar to Pilocarpine and Epinephrine
  E-Pilo 3   3% 4x Day Similar to Pilocarpine and Epinephrine Similar to Pilocarpine and Epinephrine
  E-Pilo 4   4% 4x Day Similar to Pilocarpine and Epinephrine Similar to Pilocarpine and Epinephrine
  E-Pilo 6   6% 4x Day Similar to Pilocarpine and Epinephrine Similar to Pilocarpine and Epinephrine
Cap Color:yellow top, but box is two tone (orange and yellow)            
Unknown cap color for latanoprost and timolol maleate.            
  Epinephrine combination drops are green          
Carbonic Anydrase Inhibitors            
Topical Dorzolamide Trusopt 2% 2 - 3x Day Reduces aqueous secretion Lethargy, depression, weight loss, acidosis, renal stones, bonemarrow depression.
  Brinzolamide Azopt 1% 2 - 3x Day Reduces aqueous secretion Paresthesias (tingling of the hand and the feet), malaise, anorexia, renal stones, impotence, loss of libido, mental depression, hypokalemia, acidosis, aplastic anemia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis.
Oral Acetazolamide Diamox 125mg, 250mg 4x Day Reduces aqueous secretion Paresthesias (tingling of the hand and the feet), malaise, anorexia, renal stones, impotence, loss of libido, mental depression, hypokalemia, acidosis, aplastic anemia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis.
  Acetazolamide Diamox Sequels 500mg 2x Day Reduces aqueous secretion Abdominal cramps, diarrhea, nausea
  Dichlorphenamide Daranide 50mg   Reduces aqueous secretion  
  Methazolamide Neptazane 25mg, 50mg 2 - 3x Day Reduces aqueous secretion  
IV Acetazolamide   Dosages according to body weight      
Cap Color: topical drops have orange tops            
Hyperosmotic Agents   Glycerine oral Per body weight Reduces intraocular pressure  
    Isosorbide oral Per body weigh    
    Mannitol Intravenous (IV) Per body weight